Aluminum castings are used for various industrial applications, mainly in the automotive industry, including engines, transmissions, wheels, cylinder blocks and heads, pistons, brake cylinders, and suspension arms. The substitution of aluminum casting for ferrous casting in the automotive sector is predicted to increase further as automakers continue to seek opportunities to reduce vehicular weight.
Die-casting is a manufacturing process in which molten metal is injected, under considerable pressure, into a hardened steel die or also called die casting mold. Die casting alloys are normally non-ferrous and there is a large number available with a wide range of physical and mechanical properties covering almost every conceivable application a designer might require. Aluminum alloys are the most widely used, followed by magnesium, zinc-aluminum alloys, copper, tin and lead.
The advantages associated with the use of aluminum alloys, such as lighter weight, excellent mechanical behavior, and good corrosion resistance, constitute the driving force for the introduction of new applications and designs and for the development of new processing solutions. Various processes are competing currently to achieve, both economically and technologically, more expedient production of aluminum alloys castings.